Peterson Institute research staff
The Peterson Institute for International Economics is a private, nonprofit, nonpartisan
research institution devoted to the study of international economic policy. More › ›
RSS News Feed Search

Case Studies in Sanctions and Terrorism: Summary of economic sanctions episodes, 1914–2006

Case Studies in Sanctions and Terrorism

<< Case Studies Index

Summary of economic sanctions episodes, 1914–2006
(listed by year imposed)

Year
imposed
Year
ended
Principal
sendera
Target
country
Policy
goal
Success
scoreb
(scale
1 to 16)
Cost
to
target
(percent
of GNP)
         
1914 1918 United Kingdom Germany Military victory
12
7.1
1917 1918 United States Japan Shipping for Allies
4
0.8
1918 1920 United Kingdom Russia Destabilize Bolsheviks
2
4.1
1921 1921 League of Nations Yugoslavia Military disruption vs. Albania
16
1925 1925 League of Nations Greece Withdraw from Bulgaria
16
1932 1935 League of Nations Paraguay Settle the Chaco War
6
negligible
1932 1935 League of Nations Bolivia Settle the Chaco War
6
2.6
1933 1933 United Kingdom USSR Release British citizens
12
0.02
1935 1936 League of Nations Italy Withdraw from Abyssinia
2
1.7
1938 1947 United States Mexico Expropriation dispute
9
0.2
1939 1945 United States Germany Regime change
8
1.4
1939 1945 United States Germany Military victory
12
1.4
1940 1941 United States Japan Withdraw from Southeast Asia
1
0.9
1941 1945 United States Japan Regime change
8
1.9
1941 1945 United States Japan Military victory
12
1.9
1944 1947 United States Argentina Destabilize Perón
4
0.8
1946 Ongoing Arab League Israel Create Palestinian homeland
4
1.7
1948 1994 United States USSR, Comecom Impair military potential
6
0.2
1948 1955 USSR Yugoslavia Destabilize Tito government
1
–2.5
1948 1949 United States Netherlands Recognize Indonesia
16
0.2
1948 1949 USSR France Berlin blockade
2
negligible
1948 1949 USSR United Kingdom Berlin blockade
2
0.1
1948 1949 USSR United States Berlin blockade
2
0.1
1948 1948 India Hyderabad Assimilate Hyderabad
8
2
1949 1970 United States China Impair military potential
2
0.5
1950 Ongoing United States North Korea Regime change
1
1.2
1950 Ongoing United States North Korea Military impairment
4
1.2
1950 1953 United States China Military disruption, Korea
2
0.5
1951 1953 United States Iran Destabilize Mossadegh
12
14.3
1954 1984 Spain United Kingdom Sovereignty over Gibraltar
6
0.009
1954 1974 United States North Vietnam Military impairment
1
1.6
1954 1961 India Portugal Assimilate Goa into India
8
negligible
1954 1954 USSR Australia Repatriate Soviet defector
2
0.5
1956 1983 United States Israel Intermittent, various
4
0.1
1956 1962 United States Laos Destabilization
9
4.2
1956 1956 United States Egypt Suez nationalization
9
3.4
1956 1956 United States United Kingdom End Suez intervention
12
0.3
1957 1963 France Tunisia Assistance to Algerian rebels
2
0.9
1957 1962 Indonesia Netherlands Control of West Irian
8
0.7
1958 1959 USSR Finland Adopt pro-USSR policies
16
1.1
1960 1989 United States Cuba Destabilize Castro
1
3.9
1960 1989 United States Cuba Disruption of military adventures
8
3.9
1960 1970 USSR China Military impairment
4
0.5
1960 1962 United States Dominican Republic Destabilize Trujillo
12
1.9
1961 1965 United States Ceylon Expropriation dispute  
16
0.6
1961 1965 USSR Albania Destabilize Hoxha
1
0.6
1961 1962 United States German Democratic Republic Berlin Wall
2
1962 1994 United Nations South Africa End apartheid, Namibia
8
1.2
1962 1964 United States Brazil Expropriation, destabilization
12
0.6
1962 1963 USSR Romania Limit economic independence
2
1963 1974 Organization of African Unity Portugal Free African colonies
8
0.3
1963 1966 Indonesia Malaysia "Crush Malaysia"
2
1
1963 1966 United States Indonesia Regime change
8
2
1963 1966 United States Indonesia End "Crush Malaysia"
8
2
1963 1965 United States Egypt Military disruption, Yemen, Congo
12
1.4
1963 1963 United States South Vietnam Destabilize Diem
12
0.3
1964 1966 France Tunisia Expropriation
6
1.5
1965 1979 United Nations Rhodesia Majority rule
12
13
1965 1967 United States India Agriculture policy
16
0.08
1965 1966 United States Chile Reduce copper price
9
1967 1970 Nigeria Biafra End civil war
12
15.2
1968 1974 United States Peru Expropriation
12
0.7
1968 1968 United States Peru French fighter jets
1
0.7
1970 1973 United States Chile Destabilize Allende
12
1.5
1971 1971 United States Pakistan Military disruption
4
0.3
1971 1971 United States India Military disruption
4
0.1
1971 1971 United Kingdom Malta Defense agreement
6
4.4
1972 1979 United States Uganda Destabilize Amin
12
2.6
1973 1977 United States South Korea Human rights
4
1.8
1973 1974 Arab League Netherlands Support for Israel
9
4.0
1973 1974 Arab League United States Support for Israel
9
0.2
1974 1978 United States Turkey Military disruption, Cyprus
1
0.2
1974 1976 Canada India Nuclear proliferation
4
0.04
1974 1976 Canada Pakistan Nuclear proliferation
4
0.1
1975 1998 United States North Vietnam Account for MIAs, withdrawal from Cambodia
6
1.2
1975 1994 United States USSR Freer emigration
8
0.01
1975 1990 United States Chile Human rights, democracy
8
0.7
1975 1982 United States South Africa Nuclear policy
4
0.005
1975 1979 United States Kampuchea Human rights, deter Vietnamese
2
6.4
1975 1976 United States South Korea Nuclear proliferation
16
1976 Ongoing United States Arab League Antiboycott
6
0.04
1976 1981 United States Uruguay Human rights
6
0.3
1976 1977 United States Taiwan Nuclear policy
16
0.1
1977 2005 United States Guatemala Human rights
9
0.2
1977 1992 United States Ethiopia Human rights, expropriation
6
–6.3
1977 1984 United States Brazil Human rights
6
0.1
1977 1983 United States Argentina Human rights
6
0.1
1977 1981 United States Paraguay Human rights
6
0.1
1977 1981 United States El Salvador Human rights
6
0.5
1977 1979 United States Nicaragua Destabilize Somoza
12
1.0
1977 1978 Canada European Community Nuclear safeguards
9
0.002
1977 1978 Canada Japan Nuclear safeguards
9
0.01
1978 2004 United States Libya Destabilize Gadhafi
12
1.7
1978 2004 United States Libya Nuclear proliferation
12
1.7
1978 1988 China Vietnam Withdraw from Kampuchea
6
3.5
1978 1983 China Albania Anti-Chinese rhetoric
2
3.3
1978 1983 Arab League Egypt Camp David Accords
2
–0.4
1978 1982 United States Argentina Nuclear policy
4
negligible
1978 1982 United States India Nuclear policy
4
0.01
1978 1981 United States Brazil Nuclear policy
4
0.002
1978 1980 United States USSR Human rights (dissidents)
2
0.003
1979 1997 United States Pakistan Nuclear policy
1
1.0
1979 1990 United States Chile Assassination of Letelier
12
0.7
1979 1982 United States Bolivia Human rights, drugs
6
1.7
1979 1981 United States Iran Return hostages
12
3.8
1979 1979 Arab League Canada Planned embassy move
12
0.003
1980 2003 United States Iraq Terrorism
4
0.1
1980 1981 United States USSR Invasion of Afghanistan
2
0.04
1980 1981 United States USSR Impairment, Afghanistan
2
0.04
1981 1990 United States Nicaragua Destabilize Sandinistas
8
3.2
1981 1987 United States Poland Various, solidarity
9
0.1
1981 1986 European Community Turkey Restore democracy
6
0.2
1981 1982 United States USSR Impairment, Poland
1
0.03
1982 1991 Netherlands Suriname Human rights, Cuba-Libya influence
9
6.2
1982 1986 South Africa Lesotho Return South African refugees
16
5.1
1982 1982 United Kingdom Argentina Withdraw from Falklands
12
0.6
1983 1989 United States Romania Human rights, emigration
6
0.4
1983 1988 United States Zimbabwe Foreign policy
4
0.4
1983 1986 Australia France Nuclear testing
2
negligible
1983 1983 United States USSR KAL 007 shooting down
2
negligible
1983 1983 United States Grenada Destabilize Communist sympathizers
8
negligible
1984 Ongoing United States Iran Nuclear proliferation, terrorism
4
0.4
1984 1997 United States Lebanon Hostage taking, Hezbollah activities
6
1.0
1985 1991 United States South Africa Apartheid
12
1.9
1986 Ongoing  United States Syria Terrorism
6
0.02
1986 1999 Greece Turkey Aegean Island, Cyprus, human rights
4
0.1
1986 1992 United States Angola Cuban troops, Marxism
6
0.04
1986 1986 France New Zealand Repatriation of French agents
12
0.005
1987 2001 India Fiji Restore democracy, modify Constitution
4
0.9
1987 1990 United States Panama Destabilize Noriega
8
6.0
1987 1990 United States Haiti Human rights, drugs, elections
6
2.9
1987 1988 United States El Salvador Amnesty
16
1988 Ongoing United States Burma Human rights, elections
4
1.7
1988 Ongoing  United Nations Somalia Human rights, civil war
2
7.5
1989 Ongoing  United States China Human rights (Tiananmen Square)
2
negligible
1989 Ongoing  United States Sudan Human rights, democracy
4
3.7
1989 Ongoing  Turkey, Azerbijan Armenia Withdraw from Nagorno-Karabakh
2
4.0
1989 1990 India Nepal Relations with China
9
4.6
1990 Ongoing  United States Cuba Destabilize Castro
4
14.0
1990 1997 United States Zaire Democracy
4
3.8
1990 1997 United States Yemen et al. Enforce UN embargo vs. Iraq
9
5.2
1990 1994 United States Jordan Enforce UN embargo vs. Iraq
6
5.6
1990 1993 United States Romania Democracy, elections
6
0.4
1990 1993 United States El Salvador Human rights, end civil war
9
1.3
1990 1993 United States Kenya Political repression, human rights, democracy
6
2.3
1990 1991 United Nations Iraq, prewar Military disruption, free Kuwait, hostages
2
30.0
1990 1990 USSR Lithuania Revoke Independence Declaration
6
1.5
1991 Ongoing  United States China Nuclear proliferation
4
negligible
1991 2003 United Nations Iraq, postwar Destabilization
1
54.0
1991 2003 United Nations Iraq, postwar Military impairment
9
54.0
1991 2001 United Nations Yugoslavia Civil war in Bosnia
9
13.3
1991 1997 United States Indonesia Human rights in East Timor
2
0.1
1991 1995 USSR/Russia Turkmenistan Human rights for Russians
12
19.8
1991 1995 United States Peru Democracy, human rights
12
0.5
1991 1994 United Nations Haiti Democracy
4
14.2
1991 1992 United States Thailand Coup
6
0.04
1991 1991 United States USSR Coup
8
negligible
1992 Ongoing  European Union Togo Democracy, human rights
4
3.4
1992 2003 United Nations Libya Extradite Pan Am suspects
12
0.9
1992 2002 United States Azerbaijan End Armenia embargo
1
0.7
1992 2000 European Union Equatorial Guinea Democracy, human rights
6
15.0
1992 1999 USSR/Russia Estonia Human rights for Russians
4
1.0
1992 1998 Economic Community of West African States Liberia Civil war
12
10.2
1992 1998 USSR/Russia Latvia Human rights for Russians
4
1.0
1992 1998 United States Cameroon Human rights, democracy
4
0.2
1992 1997 United Nations Cambodia, Khmer Rouge Ban Khmer Rouge
6
negligible
1992 1995 United States Nicaragua Civil control over military, expropriation claims
12
2.4
1992 1994 China France Arms sales to Taiwan
12
0.01
1992 1994 European Union Algeria Democracy
4
–0.1
1992 1993 United States Malawi Democracy, human rights
16
6.6
1993 Ongoing United States Sudan Terrorism, religious persecution
6
0.4
1993 2002 United Nations Angola, Unita Civil war, democracy
12
7.5
1993 1998 United States Nigeria Human rights, democracy, narcotics
4
0.4
1993 1997 USSR/Russia Ukraine Control over Black Sea fleet, nuclear weapons
6
7.1
1993 1996 USSR/Russia Kazakhstan Independence issues, energy resources
9
4.6
1993 1994 United States North Korea Nuclear proliferation
9
1993 1993 United States Guatemala Coup
16
1.3
1994 1998 United States Gambia Democracy
6
–0.02
1994 1995 Greece Macedonia National identity
9
3.2
1994 1995 Greece Albania Release of jailed ethnic Greek leaders
16
2.9
1994 1995 United Nations Rwanda Civil violence
2
–5.6
1995 1998 United States Peru Border conflict
8
negligible
1995 1998 United States Ecuador Border conflict
8
negligible
1995 1996 Australia France Nuclear testing
4
negligible
1995 1995 European Union Turkey Human rights
9
negligible
1996 2000 United States Nigeria Democracy
9
4.9
1996 1999 East African members of Organization of African Unity Burundi Democracy
6
10.4
1996 1998 United States Zambia Human rights, constitutional reform
4
2.9
1996 1998 United States Colombia Narcotics, human rights
6
0.2
1996 1996 United States, Mercosur members Paraguay Possible coup attempt
12
1997 Ongoing  United Nations Cambodia, Khmer Rouge Democracy
4
2.6
1997 2003 United Nations Sierra Leone Democracy
8
5.8
1998 2001 United States Pakistan Nuclear policy
4
1.0
1998 2001 United States India Nuclear proliferation
2
0.2
1998 2001 United States Yugoslavia, Serbia Destabilize Milošević
12
8.3
1998 1999 United States Yugoslavia, Serbia Kosovo
6
8.3
1998 1999 Turkey Italy Kurdish leader
9
1999 2002 United States Indonesia Independence for East Timor
12
0.2
1999 2002 United Nations Afghanistan Extradite Osama bin Laden
2
1.1
1999 2002 United States Ivory Coast Coup, democracy
6
0.3
1991 2001 United States Pakistan Coup, democracy
2
negligible
2000 2006 Economic Community of West African States Liberia Support for RUF
8
18.8
2000 2000 United States Ecuador Coup
12
2002 2006 United States North Korea Nuclear proliferation
1
0.6

a In some instances, other countries or international organizations participated in
the sanctions.
b For the definition of success score, see Defining Success of Economic Sanctions Episodes.
Source: Economic Sanctions Reconsidered, 3d ed. (2008).

<< top of page